crownsevenalphabet, on Sep 10 2009, 01:54 AM, said:
Thank you, Voice :
Very interesting information. I plan to re-read the commentary a 2nd time.
I find some of my answer's are in these two scripture's you posted:
Thus saith the LORD of hosts; In those days it shall come to pass, that ten men shall take hold out of all languages of the nations, even shall take hold of the skirt of him that is a Jew, saying, We will go with you: for we have heard that God is with you.
For he is not a Jew, which is one outwardly; neither is that circumcision, which is outward in the flesh:
But he is a Jew, which is one inwardly; and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit, and not in the letter; whose praise is not of men, but of God.
Thus saith the LORD of hosts; In those days it shall come to pass, that ten men shall take hold out of all languages of the nations, even shall take hold of the skirt (tzizit) of him that is a Jew
, saying, We will go with
you: for we have heard that God is with you.
And, behold, a woman, which was diseased with an issue of blood twelve years, came behind him, and touched the hem (tzizit) of his garment:
Speak unto the children of Israel
, and bid them that they make them fringes (tzizit)
in the borders of their garments throughout their generations, and that they put upon the fringe of the borders a ribband of blue:
The Greek term ethnos
literally just means "nation" or "people" or "ethnic group," although in the Bible it often refers collectively to all the other
nations except for the Jews. Since most "nations" in biblical times had their own religion and their own gods, there is much overlap between what we today might distinguish: nation states vs. ethnic groups vs. religious groups. Thus, "Jews" in the Bible are both an ethnic group and a religious group.
The "Jews" of today have had a very long history and a complex heritage, including but not limited to the Jews of biblical times. Today they are both a religious group and an ethnic group, but not exclusively either of these (that is, many of today's religious "Jews" come from other ethnic groups, and some ethnic "Jews" today no longer practice the Jewish religion). In different historical eras and geographical locations, however, they have been called by a variety of different names (Jews, Judeans, Israelites, Israelis, Hebrews, Palestinians, etc.), each of which has a particular origin and meaning.
These terms are all inter-connected, but with some significant differences. They all refer to people who consider themselves the "Twelve Tribes of Israel," descendants of the "Twelve Sons of Jacob," and thus ultimately the "Children of Abraham." On the other hand, Arabs, Muslims, Samaritans, and even Christians also consider themselves to be descendants of Abraham, although in significantly different ways.
Ancient Jews, their Ancestors, and their Descendants:
Children of Abraham
- people who claim Abraham as their father (whether literally or figuratively, by birth or by faith). This term can encompass Jews, Samaritans, and Christians:
- Abraham (originally called Abram) eventually had two sons, even though his wife Sarah (originally called Sarai) was thought to be unable to bear any children (Gen 12-25):
- Since Sarah was childless at first, Abraham's first son Ishmael was born to Sarah's slave Hagar (a common practice in ancient times; see Gen 16)
- But Sarah herself later also had a son, named Isaac, and some rivalries developed between the mothers, which eventually split the family (Gen 21).
- In the next generation, Isaac also had two sons, twins named Esau and Jacob (Gen 25), each of whom had numerous descendants themselves (Gen 35:23—37:1).
- Jacob's name was later changed to Israel (Gen 32:28; 35:10; see "Israelites" below).
- Jews see themselves as the physical and spiritual descendants of Abraham, through his son Isaac and grandson Jacob.
- Even though Isaac was younger than Ishmael, and Jacob was younger than Esau, the Jews consider themselves the ones chosen by God as the legitimate heirs of the covenent at Sinai, and via the incontravertable promises God made to Abraham (Gen 17:20-22; 22:16-18; 27:1-45; 49:1-12)
- Christians also claim to be Abraham's descendants (Gal 3; Rom 4), but through "faith" or spiritual "adoption" (Gal 4; Rom 8), rather than physical descent.
- an alternate designation for the people of Israel, the Jews, both in ancient and modern times:
- In the OT, "Hebrews" refers to an ethnic group, esp. in contrast to the Egyptians (Gen 43:32; Exod 1:19) or other nations (Jonah 1:9).
- Many scholars today think the word "Hebrew" is derived from "Eber," the name of one of Abraham's ancestors (Gen 10:24-25, 11:14-26).
- Some scholars suggest that the word apiru or habiru (found in various Ancient Near Eastern documents) refers to early Hebrews.
- "Hebrew" also refers to the ancient Semitic language in which most of the Bible (Old Testament) was written.
- By the time of Jesus, most Jews no longer spoke Hebrew, but rather Aramaic, a closely related Semitic language; yet many Jews still read the Bible in Hebrew.
- Hebrew almost died out as a living language; but "modern Hebrew," based on biblical Hebrew, was resurrected in the 19th century.
- In the NT, "Hebrew" sometimes refers more loosely to the Aramaic language commonly spoken at the time of Jesus (cf. John 19:13, 17, 20; etc.)
- In the NT, one book is called "To the Hebrews" not because it was originally written in the Hebrew language, nor because it was addressed to Jews, but because it seems to have been addressed to Christians from a Jewish religious and/or ethnic background.
- the most common term for the ancient people belonging to the twelve tribes of Israel:
Judahites / Judeans / Jews
- One of the grandsons of Abraham was originally named Jacob, but later received the name Israel (Gen 25:26; 32:28; 35:10).
- Note that this name is properly spelled Isr-A-E-L, not Isr-E-A-L, even though it is usually pronounced with a long "EE" in English.
- The twelve sons of Jacob (Gen 29:31—30:24; 35:16-20; summarized in 35:23-26) are considered to be the ancestors of the "twelve tribes of Israel" (Gen 49:28).
- During the days of Moses, Joshua, the Judges, and the early Kings (Saul, David, Solomon), "Israel" and "Israelite" still refers to the whole people, from all twelve of the tribes.
- Following the split of the "Kingdom of David" in 922 BCE, the ten northern tribes comprised what continued to be called the "Kingdom of Israel," in contrast to the "Kingdom of Judah" in the South (which consisted of the tribe of Judah and the much smaller tribe of Benjamin).
- Both of these kingdoms are eventually taken over by foreign empires (the Kingdom of Israel by the Assyrians in 721 BCE, the Kingdom of Judah by the Babylonians by 587 BCE).
- Even before the time of Jesus, people were hoping for the reestablishment of the "Kingdom of Israel," meaning not just the ten northern tribes, but all twelve of the tribes of Israel.
- The modern state of Israel was not re-established until 1948, following World War II, but mandate of the United Nations.
- Citizens of the modern state of Israel are called "Israelis," in contrast to the "Israelites" of ancient times.
- closely related names stemming from slightly different historical circumstances and eras:
Judahites - a term for the inhabitants of the southern Kingdom of Judah after 922 BCE. Judeans - the Greek term for the inhabitants of Judea, the territory formerly called "Judah." Jews - a later English shorthand term dervied from the Greek word "Judeans" Galileans
- people in or from the Northern regions of Israel, esp. West of the Sea of Galilee (a.k.a. Sea of Tiberias, Lake of Gennesaret, etc.).
- The area inhabited by the several ancient Israelite tribes after the conquest of the land led by Joshua (1200's BCE).
- Namely, the tribes of Issachar, Zebulun, Naphtali, and Dan (see Joshua 19:10-48; 20:7; 21:32).
- Part of the (Northern) Kingdom of Israel, after the death of King Solomon and the division of the kingdom (ca. 930 BCE).
- Conquered by the Assyrians, along with the rest of the Northern Kingdom, in the 720's BCE (2 Kings 15:29; Isaiah 9:1).
- Thus not inhabited by Israelites for several centuries, but by people resettled from other parts of the Assyrian Empire.
- Reconquered and resettled by the Judeans (Jews) during the period of the Maccabees (late 2nd Cent. BCE).
- Yet geographically separated from the heart of Judea by the (hostile) region of Samaria.
- Part of the Kingdom of Herod the Great (40-4 BCE); then ruled by his son, the Herod Antipas (4 BCE - 39 CE; see Luke 3:1; 23:6-11).
- Although culturally/religiously Jews, Galileans apparently had a distinct accent (Mark 14:70; Matt 26:69-75; Luke 22:59; Acts 2:7).
- They may have been looked down upon by other Judeans (John 1:43-46; 7:41, 52) in the same way perhaps that
- northerners of countries consider themselves to be more sophisticated (especially linguistically) than southerners.
- Jesus himself was a Galilean Rabbi who had a mezuzah on his doorposts, fringes on his garments, a prayer shawl when
- attending synagogue, a completely kosher diet - he was nationally and ethnically a circumcised Jewish male, legally
- permitted to consitute one of the quorum of a minimum of ten men in any Jewish prayer service. He was allowed into
- the Beit HaMikdash/Jewish Temple in Jerusalem with full Jewish rights. As an 'Orthodox Rabbi' he was permitted to teach from the sacred Torah scrolls, the Prophets and the Writings of King David and King Solomon (Psalms and Proverbs). He was from the tribe of Judah and the line of David, both which could be proven from Temple records.
refers to all the inhabitants of the geographic region of Israel, then called by the Romans -Palestine
; now refers more specifically to certain sub-groups:
- "Palestine" was the name given by the Romans to the territory of Israel after the Second Jewish War against Rome (132-135 CE)
- It was derived from the name "Philistines," ancient enemies of the Hebrews who also lived in the same territory. As a nomenclature it was mean't as an insult and parody to a conquered Jewish people.
- In the 19th and 20th centuries, "Palestinians" referred to all the people living in the Holy Land.
- Thus including Palestinian Jews, Palestinian Arabs, and Palestinian Christians.
- Today, "Palestinians" generally refers to the non-Jewish Arabs living in Israel, including those from there but now living in exile in other countries.
- Note that while most modern Palestinians are Muslim, there still are some Palestinian Arab Christians.
- the citizens and inhabitants of the State of Israel, since its independence in 1948.
Terms Used for Non-Jewish Groups in the Ancient World:
- The term "Israelis" (in the modern State of Israel) should not be confused with "Isaraelites" (the ancient inhabitants), as explained above.
- Although most inhabitants of Israel today are Jews (including some Palestinian Jews and many Jewish immigrants from other parts of the world), some citizens of Israel are Arabs, Muslims, and/or Christians.
- people from the region of Samaria (the ancient Northern Kingdom of Israel, whose capital city was also called Samaria):
- The Samaritans only accepted the Pentateuch (the Torah, the first five books of the HB) as canonical.
- Jews and Samaritans disdained each other, due to centuries of conflict and rivalry.
- The Gospel of Mark never mentions Samaritans, while the Matthean Jesus explicitly instructs his disciples to avoid Samaritan villages (Matt 10:5-6).
- In Luke's Gospel, a Samaritan village rejects Jesus (Luke 9:52-53), but Jesus also uses a Samaritan as the compassionate central character of a parable (Luke 10:29-37), and one of the ten lepers cleansed by Jesus is a Samaritan (Luke 17:11-17).
- In John, Jesus encounters a Samaritan woman at a well, and accepts the hospitality of a Samaritan village (John 4).
- Samaria becomes a center of missionary activity in the early Church (Acts 1:8; 8:4-25).
- a general term referring to any and all people who are not Jews and who are not Jews ethnically or nationally and who are not Jewish Christians:
- Nations: the Greek term ethnos literally means "nation," but if it seems in the Bible to refer to all the other nations, outside of Israel, it is often translated "Gentile."
- Greeks: can refer either specifically to the people from Greece (2 Macc 4:10-15), or more generally to any Greek-speaking person living in the Eastern part of the Roman Empire (Mark 7:26; John 7:35; etc.).
- official representatives of the Roman Emperor or Empire (John 11:48, Acts 25:16)
- those who pledged allegiance to Rome (Acts 16:21)
- citizens of the city and/or empire of (Acts 22:25-29)
- Jews who had been born in Rome or resided there (Acts 2:10)
- Barbarians - a term used for people outside the Hellenistic and/or Roman worlds (depending on who the speaker is).
- not just one ethnic or national group, but all people who believe in Jesus as the "Christ"
- The term "Christian" is derived from the Greek word Christos, equivalent to the Hebrew word Messias, both of which simply mean "the anointed one" (John 1:41; 4:25), and are used as the most common Messianic titles for Jesus of Nazareth.
- "Christian" is first applied to the predominantly Gentile believers in the Greek-speaking city of Antioch, the capital of the Roman Province of Syria and third-largest city of the Roman Empire (Acts 11:26); it is used only two other times in the entire NT (Acts 26:28; 1 Peter 4:16)
- These Gentiles, before being called "Christians", probably referred to themselves as "believers," "disciples," "brothers/sisters," or "saints," while outsiders may have called them "Nazarenes" (Acts 24:5), or followers of "the Way" (Acts 9:2; 18:25; 19:9, 23; etc.).
- the first believers in Jesus mentioned in the New Testament were Jewish believers and were the first of the Nazarenes residing in Israel. Jewish believers today are called Jewish Christians, Christian Jews, Messianic Jews or Messianic Jewish believers.
You are a Gentile Christian
This post has been edited by VOICE: 09 September 2009 - 05:12 PM